Wednesday, December 14, 2005








An airplane is a giant transporter for cargo and people. An airplane can go to another country.There are two aeroplane companies Boeing and Airbus.There are diffrent types of aeroplanes by Boeing and Airbus. Aircraft by Boeing is like the Boeing 747 (above),Boeing 777,Boeing 787,Boeing 737, Boeing MD-11 and Boeing 707,Boeing 717,Boeing 767,Boeing 727,Boeing 757,Boeing DC 8,Boeing DC9,Boeing DC 10,Boeing MD 80 and Boeing MD 90. Aircraft by Airbus is like the A380,A350,A340,A320,A310,
A300,A330. An aeroplane can go up into the air beacause it has turbo engines. A turbo engine is a engine that is stronger than any other engines. The newest airplane is the A380 by Airbus.The A380 is a bigger plane than the Boeing 747 by
Boeing. The A380 is now the worlds leading plane. In the future,with new improved tecnology the aeroplane will became even better



The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. Boeing is the largest global aircraft manufacturer by revenue[2] and the second-largest defense contractor in the world.[3] In 2006, Boeing was the world’s largest civil aircraft company in terms of orders (with 55% of orders and 54% of deliveries in its market segment), overtaking Airbus for the first time since 2000. The largest exporter in the United States, Boeing’s stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
History

[edit] Before 1950s

Model of Boeing's first plane, the B&W at Future of Flight Museum shop
Boeing was incorporated in Seattle, Washington by William E. Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as “Pacific Aero Products Co.” following the June 15, 1916 maiden flight of one of the two “B&W” seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U.S. Navy engineer. On May 9, 1917, the company became the “Boeing Airplane Company”. William E. Boeing had studied at Yale University and worked initially in the timber industry, where he became a rich man and acquired knowledge about wooden structures. This knowledge would prove invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes.
In 1927, Boeing created an airline, named Boeing Air Transport (BAT). A year later, BAT, as well as Pacific Air Transport and Boeing Airplane Company merged into a single corporation. The company changed its name to United Aircraft And Transport Corporation in 1929 and acquired Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Standard Propeller Company, and Chance Vought. United Aircraft then purchased National Air Transport in 1930. The Air Mail Act of 1934 prohibited airlines and manufacturers from being under the same corporate umbrella, so the company split into three smaller companies - Boeing Airplane Company, United Airlines, and United Aircraft Corporation, the precursor to United Technologies. As a result, William Boeing sold off his shares.

The Boeing 314 Clipper.
Shortly after, an agreement with Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was reached, to develop and build a commercial flying boat able to carry passengers on transoceanic routes. The first flight of the Boeing 314 Clipper was in June 1938. It was the largest civil aircraft of its time, with a capacity of 90 passengers on day flights, and of 40 passengers on night flights. One year later, the first regular passenger service from the US to the UK was inaugurated. Subsequently other routes were opened, so that soon Pan Am flew with the Boeing 314 to destinations all over the world.
In 1938, Boeing completed work on the Model 307 Stratoliner. This was the world’s first pressurized-cabin transport aircraft, and it was capable of cruising at an altitude of 20,000 feet. — above most weather disturbances.
During World War II, Boeing built a huge number of bombers. Many of the workers were women whose spouses had gone to war. In the beginning of March 1944, production had been scaled up in such a manner that over 350 planes were built each month. To prevent an attack from the air, the manufacturing plants had been covered with greenery and farmland items. During these years of war the leading aircraft companies of the US cooperated. The Boeing-designed B-17 bomber was assembled also by Lockheed Aircraft Corp. and Douglas Aircraft Co., while the B-29 was assembled also by Bell Aircraft Co. and by Glenn L. Martin Company.

Boeing 377 Stratocruiser
After the war, most orders of bombers were canceled and 70,000 people lost their jobs at Boeing. The company aimed to recover quickly by selling its Stratocruiser, a luxurious four-engine commercial airliner developed from the B-29. However, sales of this model were not as expected and Boeing had to seek other opportunities to overcome the situation. The company successfully sold military aircraft adapted for troop transportation and for aerial refueling.

The Boeing 707.

[edit] 1950s
In the mid-1950s technology had advanced significantly, which gave Boeing the possibility to develop and manufacture totally new products. One of the first was the guided short-range missile used to intercept enemy aircraft. At that time the Cold War had become a fact to live with, and Boeing used its short-range missile technology to develop and build an intercontinental missile.
In 1958, Boeing began delivery of its 707, the United States' first commercial jet airliner, in response to the British De Havilland Comet, French Sud Aviation Caravelle and Soviet Tupolev Tu-104 'Camel'; which were the world’s first generation of commercial jet aircraft. With the 707, a four-engine, 156-passenger airliner, the US became leaders in commercial jet manufacture. A few years later, Boeing added a second version of this aircraft, the 720 which was slightly faster and had a shorter range. A few years later, Boeing introduced the 727, another commercial jet airliner of similar size, which had however three engines and was designed for medium-range routes. The 727 was immediately well accepted as a comfortable and reliable aircraft by passengers, crews, and airlines. Although production was discontinued in 1984, at the turn of the millennium nearly 1,300 727s were still in service at airlines around the world.

[edit] 1960s

1968 Tucumcari patrol hydrofoil was basis for later boats
Piasecki Helicopter was acquired by Boeing in 1960, and was reorganized as Boeing's Vertol division. The twin-rotor CH-47 Chinook, produced by Vertol, took its first flight in 1961. This heavy-lift helicopter remains a work-horse vehicle up to the present day. In 1964, Vertol also began production of the CH-46 Sea Knight.

Boeing 737-300
In 1967, Boeing introduced another short- and medium-range airliner, the twin-engine 737. It has become since then the best-selling commercial jet aircraft in aviation history. The 737 is still being produced, and continuous improvements are made. Several versions have been developed, mainly to increase seating capacity and range.

Uniformed flight attendants representing each of the 747's initial 26 airline customers.

The 707 and 747 formed the backbone of many major airline fleets through the end of the 1970s.
The roll-out ceremonies for the first 747-100 took place in 1968, at the massive new factory in Everett, about an hour's drive from Boeing's Seattle home. The aircraft made its first flight a year later. The first commercial flight occurred in 1970. The 747 has an intercontinental range and a larger seating capacity than Boeing's previous aircraft.
Boeing also developed hydrofoils in the 1960s. The screw driven USS High Point (PCH-1) was an experimental submarine hunter. The patrol hydrofoil USS Tucumcari (PGH-2) was more successful. Only one was built, but it saw service in Vietnam and Europe before running aground in 1972. Its innovative waterjet[citation needed] and fully submersed flying foils were the model for the later Pegasus class patrol hydrofoils and Jetfoil ferries in the 1980s. The Tucumcari and later boats were produced in Renton. While the Navy hydrofoils were withdrawn by the end of the 1980s, the swift and smooth Boeing Jetfoils are still in service in Asia.

[edit] 1970s
In the beginning of the 1970s, Boeing faced a new crisis. The Apollo program in which Boeing had participated significantly during the preceding decade was almost entirely cancelled. Once more, Boeing hoped to compensate sales with its commercial airliners. At that time, however, there was a heavy recession in the airlines industry so that Boeing did not receive one single order for more than one year. Boeing’s bet for the future, the new 747 was delayed in production and engendered much higher costs than had been forecast. Another problem was that, in 1971, the U.S. Congress decided to stop the financial support for the development of the supersonic 2707, Boeing’s answer to the British-French Concorde, forcing the company to discontinue the project. The company had to reduce the number of employees from over 80,000 to almost half, only in the Seattle area. In January 1970 the first 747, a four-engine long-range airliner, flew its first commercial flight. This famous aircraft completely changed the way of flying, with its 450-passenger seating capacity and its upper deck. Until 2001, Boeing had been the only aircraft manufacturer to offer such an airliner and has delivered near to 1,400 units. (Airbus now offers the A380, which when delivered will be the largest operational airliner). The 747 has undergone continuous improvements to keep it technologically up-to-date. Larger versions have also been developed by stretching the upper deck. During the 1970s, Boeing also developed light rail vehicles which were used in San Franciso and Boston. They were a limited success as different models would be chosen to replace them by the 2000s.

[edit] 1980s

The narrowbody Boeing 757 replaced the 707 and 727.
In 1983, the economic situation began to improve. Boeing assembled its 1,000th 737 passenger airliner. During the following years, commercial aircraft and their military versions became the basic equipment of airlines and air forces. As passenger air traffic increased, competition was harder, mainly from a European newcomer in commercial airliner manufacturing, Airbus. Boeing had to offer new aircraft, and developed the single-aisle 757, the larger, twin-aisle 767, and upgraded versions of the 737. An important project of these years was the Space Shuttle, to which Boeing contributed with its experience in space rockets acquired during the Apollo era. Boeing participated also with other products in the space program, and was the first contractor for the International Space Station. At the same time, several military projects went into production, the Avenger air defense system and a new generation of short-range missiles. During these years, Boeing was very active upgrading existing military equipment and developing new ones.

[edit] 1990s

Air France 777-300ER
In April 1994, Boeing introduced its most modern commercial jet aircraft, the twin-engine 777, with a seating capacity of between 300 and 400 passengers in a standard three class layout, in between the 767 and the 747. The longest range twin-engined aircraft in the world, the 777 was the first Boeing airliner to feature a "fly-by-wire" system and was conceived in response to the inroads being made by the European Airbus into Boeing’s traditional market. This aircraft reached an important milestone by being the first airliner to be designed entirely by using CAD techniques. Also in the mid-1990s, the company developed the revamped version of the 737, known as the “Next-Generation 737”, or 737NG. It has since become the fastest-selling version of the 737 in history, and on April 20, 2006 sales passed those of the 'Classic 737', with a follow-up order for 79 aircraft from Southwest Airlines. The “Next-Generation 737” line includes the 737-600, the 737-700, the 737-800, and the 737-900.

Boeing Company Timeline.
In 1996, Boeing acquired Rockwell’s aerospace and defense units. The Rockwell products became a subsidiary of Boeing, named Boeing North American, Inc. In August of the next year, Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas to form The Boeing Company. Following the merger, the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 was renamed the Boeing 717, and the production of the MD-11 was limited to the freighter version. Boeing introduced a new corporate identity with completion of the merger, incorporating the Boeing logo type and a stylized version of the McDonnell Douglas symbol, which was derived from the Douglas Aircraft logo from the 1950s.

[edit] 2000s
In recent years Boeing has faced an increasingly competitive Airbus, which offers some commonality between models (reducing maintenance and training costs) and the latest fly-by-wire technology. From the 1970s Airbus has increased its family of aircraft to the point where they can now offer an aircraft in almost every class Boeing does. Indeed, Airbus is now competing in markets that Boeing once had a monopoly over, e.g. the A320 has been selected by several low-cost operators (the aircraft used by these airlines has traditionally been the 737) and the very large aircraft market, the A380. The 747 has suffered by competing with Boeing’s 777-300 series.

Boeing's headquarters in Chicago
In September 2001, Boeing moved its corporate headquarters from Seattle to Chicago.
On October 10, 2001, Boeing lost to its rival Lockheed Martin in the fierce competition for the multi-billion dollar Joint Strike Fighter contract. Boeing’s entry, the X-32, was rejected in favor of Lockheed’s F-35 entrant. The X-32 may have been hampered by the requirement for a redesign after several flaws were found in the original concept.
In 2004, Boeing cancelled production of the 757 after 1055 were produced, with the last aircraft going to Shanghai Airlines, in China. More advanced, stretched versions of the 737 were beginning to compete against the 757, and the new 787-3 will fill some of the top end of the 757 market. Also that year, Boeing announced that the 717, the last civil aircraft to be designed by McDonnell-Douglas, would cease production by 2006. The 767 is likely to cease production soon. However, if Boeing manages to win the contract for new USAF tankers, the 767 program might be saved.

International Space Station
Boeing continues to serve as the prime contractor on the International Space Station and has built several of the major components.
After several decades of numerous successes, Boeing lost ground to Europe’s Airbus and subsequently lost its position as market leader in 2003. Multiple Boeing projects were pursued and then canceled. The Sonic Cruiser is among these projects. The Boeing Sonic Cruiser was launched in 2001 along with a new advertising campaign to promote its new motto, "Forever New Frontiers", and rehabilitate its image. Boeing is now focused on the newly-launched 787 Dreamliner as a platform of total fleet rejuvenation, which has benefited from strong sales success at the expense of Airbus' competing offerings.
On August 2, 2005 Boeing sold its Rocketdyne rocket engine division to Pratt & Whitney.
In May 2005, Boeing announced its intent to form a joint venture, United Launch Alliance with its competitor Lockheed Martin. The new venture will be the largest provider of rocket launch services to the US government. The joint venture gained regulatory approval and completed the formation on December 1, 2006.[4]

Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Recently, Boeing has launched a new aircraft; the 787 Dreamliner, and four new aircraft variants; ultra-long-range 777-200LR, 737-900ER, 737-700ER and 747-8. The 777-200LR has the longest range of any commercial aircraft. The 777-200LR completed flight-testing and certification, with the first aircraft delivered to Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in 2006. The 737-900ER will extend the range of the 737-900 to a similar range as the successful 737-800 with the capability to fly more passengers, due to the addition of two extra emergency exits. The 747-8 is a stretched version and will offer higher efficiency and longer range.
On May 1, 2006 Boeing announced that it had reached a definitive agreement to purchase Dallas, Texas-based Aviall, Inc. for $1.7 billion and retain $350 million in debt. Aviall, Inc. and its subsidiaries, Aviall Services, Inc. and ILS will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Boeing Commercial Aviation Services (BCAS). Aviall's CEO, Paul E. Fulchino will report to BCAS' General Manager/Vice President, Lou Mancini. The agreement was approved by Aviall's shareholders on September 19 and final closing was on September 20, 2006.

[edit] Unethical conduct
In May 2003 the US Air Force announced it would lease 100 KC-767 tankers to replace the oldest 136 of its KC-135s. The 10 year lease would give the USAF the option to purchase the aircraft at the end of the contract. In September 2003, responding to critics who argued that the lease was vastly more expensive than an outright purchase, the DOD announced a revised lease of 74 aircraft and purchase of 26.
In December 2003 the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one if its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun (who had moved to Boeing in January) was begun. The fallout of this resulted in the resignation of Boeing CEO Philip M. Condit and the termination of CFO Michael M. Sears. Harry Stonecipher, former McDonnell Douglas CEO and Boeing COO, replaced Condit.
Druyun pleaded guilty to inflating the price of the contract to favor her future employer and to passing information on the competing Airbus A330 MRTT bid (from EADS). In October 2004 she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service.
In March 2005 the Boeing board forced President and CEO Harry Stonecipher to resign. Boeing said an internal investigation revealed a “consensual” relationship between Stonecipher and a female executive that was “inconsistent with Boeing's Code of Conduct” and “would impair his ability to lead the company”.[5] James A. Bell served as interim CEO (in addition to his normal duties as Boeing’s CFO) until the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new Chairman, President, and CEO on June 30, 2005.

[edit] Industrial espionage
In June 2003 Lockheed Martin sued Boeing alleging the company had resorted to industrial espionage in 1998 to win the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) competition. Lockheed alleged that former employee Kenneth Branch, who went to work for McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, passed 25,000 proprietary documents to his new employers. Lockheed argued that these documents allowed Boeing to win 21 of the 28 tendered military satellite launches.
In July 2003 Boeing was penalized, with the Pentagon stripping $1 billion worth of contracts away from the company and awarding them to Lockheed. Furthermore, the company was forbidden to bid for rocket contracts for a twenty-month period which expired in March 2005.
In early September 2005 it was reported that Boeing was negotiating a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in which it would pay up to $500 million to cover this and the Darleen Druyun scandal.[6]

[edit] Subsidy disputes
In October 2004, Boeing filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization (WTO), claiming that Airbus had violated a 1992 bilateral accord when it received what Boeing deems as “unfair” subsidies from several European governments. Airbus retaliated by filing another complaint, contesting that Boeing had also violated the accord when it received tax breaks from the U.S. Government. Moreover, the E.U. also complained that the investment subsidies from Japanese airlines violated the accord.
On January 11, 2005 the two parties (Boeing and Airbus) agreed that they would attempt to find a solution to the dispute outside of the WTO.
However, in June 2005, Boeing and the United States government reopened the trade dispute with the WTO, claiming that Airbus had received illegal subsidies from European governments. Airbus has also retaliated against Boeing, reopening the dispute and also accusing Boeing of receiving subsidies from the US government.[7]

[edit] Product developments

Airbus-Boeing competition: Plane net orders 2002-2005
Finally, Boeing achieved several consecutive successes, beginning with the formal launch of the 787 for delivery to All Nippon Airways and Air New Zealand.
Boeing also received the launch contract from the US Navy for the P-8 Multimission Maritime Aircraft, an anti-submarine warfare patrol aircraft. Several orders for the Wedgetail AEW&C airplanes are expected as well.
In November 2004, Boeing announced it will offer a cargo version of the popular 777 model, based on the 777-200LR. Boeing launched the Boeing 777 Freighter in May 2005 with an order from Air France. Other customers rumored to be interested include Lufthansa, EVA Airways, ILFC, GECAS and Emirates.
Boeing has achieved above projected orders at 404 for its 787 Dreamliner, outselling the rival Airbus A350. A large blow to Airbus came as Emirates Airlines president Tim Clark stated that his airline must be convinced that the 250 to 290-seat A350 would not repeat the “misses” by Airbus in performance and delivery. Emirates has held off ordering either airplane as it tries to convince Boeing to build a larger version of the 787, the 787-10 - which is the airline’s preferred option. Air Canada also dealt Airbus a blow by replacing its entire A330 and A340 fleet with 96 Boeing 777s and 787s.
Boeing officially announced in November 2005 that it would produce a larger version of the 747, the 747-8, in two models, commencing with a model for two cargo carriers with firm orders for the aircraft. The second model, slightly shorter than the cargo version but still longer than the 747-400, dubbed the Intercontinental, would be produced for passenger airlines that Boeing expected would place orders in the near future. Both models of the 747-8 would feature a lengthened fuselage, new, advanced engines and wings, and the incorporation of other technologies developed for the 787.
Boeing’s most successful new aircraft measured by recent orders remained the 737, for which it received orders totaling 387 new units in 2005 as reported on August 7. The 737-900ER is the largest model of the 737 line at a length of 138 feet, and the 737-700ER is the latest version of the venerable plane.

The record-breaking 777-200LR Worldliner, presented at the Paris Air Show 2005.
The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight.
Realizing that increasing numbers of passengers have become reliant on their computers to stay in touch, Boeing introduced Connexion by Boeing, a satellite based Internet connectivity service that promised air travelers unprecedented access to the World Wide Web. The company debuted the product to journalists in 2005, receiving generally favorable reviews. However, facing competition from cheaper options, such as cellular networks, it proved too difficult to sell to most airlines. In August 2006, after a short and unsuccessful search for a buyer for the business, Boeing chose to discontinue the service.[8][9]

[edit] Future Concepts
In May 2006, four concept designs being examined by Boeing were outlined in the Seattle Times. Codenamed after the well-known Muppets (the design team is known as the Green Team), the designs concentrated primarily on reducing fuel usage. All four designs illustrated rear-engine layouts. "Fozzie" employs open rotors and would offer a lower cruising speed. "Beaker" has very thin, wide wings, with the ability to partially fold-up to facilitate easier taxiing. "Kermit Kruiser" has forward swept wings over which are positioned its engines, with the aim of lowering noise below due to the reflection of the exhaust signature upward. "Honeydew" with its delta wing design, resembles a marriage of the flying wing concept and the traditional tube fuselage. As with most concepts, these designs are only in the exploratory stage intended to help Boeing evaluate the potentials of such radical technologies.[10]

[edit] Jeppesen International Trip Planning
On October 23, 2006, the New Yorker Magazine claimed that Jeppesen, a subsidiary of Boeing, handled the logistical planning for the CIA's extraordinary rendition flights. The claim is based on information from an ex-employee who quoted Bob Overby, managing director of the company as saying "We do all of the extraordinary rendition flights—you know, the torture flights. Let’s face it, some of these flights end up that way." The article went on to suggest that this may make Jeppesen a potential defendant in a law suit by Khaled el-Masri.[11]

[edit] Divisions
The two largest divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes and the Integrated Defense Systems. Integrated Defense Systems is Boeing's space and defense division.
Boeing Australia, Ltd.
Boeing Capital
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Airplane Programs
787 Program
Commercial Aviation Services
BCA subsidiaries:
Aeroinfo Systems
Alteon Training, formerly FlightSafetyBoeing
Aviall, Inc.
Aviation Partners Boeing, a 50/50 joint venture with Aviation Partners Inc.
Continental Datagraphics
Jeppesen, formerly Jeppesen Sanderson.
Preston Aviation Solutions
Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
Advanced Systems
Network & Space Systems
Boeing Satellite Systems, formerly a unit of Hughes Electronics
Precision Engagement & Mobility Systems
Support Systems
Joint Ventures
Sea Launch (40% Boeing)
United Launch Alliance (with Lockheed Martin)
United Space Alliance (with Lockheed Martin)
Phantom Works
Intellectual Property Management
Corporate Engineering & Technology
Boeing Shared Services Group
Information Technology
Boeing Realty
Boeing Travel Management Company

[edit] Employment Numbers

[edit] Employment By Location
Employment By Location
Arizona
4,618
California
28,209
Kansas
2,988
Missouri
15,822
Pennsylvania
4,859
Texas
4,815
Washington
68,570
Other Locations
24,200
Total Company
154,081
As of 01/31/2007

[edit] Employment by Group (Division)
Employment By Group (Division)
Integrated Defense Systems
72,251
Commercial Airplanes
56,782
Connexion by Boeing
68
Boeing Technology
12,319
Finance & Shared Services
10,508
Human Resources & Administration
891
Corporate
1,261
Other
1
Total Company
154,081
As of 01/31/2007

[edit] Corporate governance

[edit] Current Board of Directors
W. James McNerney, Jr. - Chairman, President & CEO
John H. Biggs
John Bryson
Linda Cook
William M. Daley
Kenneth M. Duberstein
John McDonnell
Richard Nanula
Rozanne Ridgway
John Shalikashvili
Mike S. Zafirovski
[edit] Chief executive officer
1933–1939
Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1939–1944
Philip G. Johnson
1944–1945
Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1945–1968
William M. Allen
1969–1986
Thornton “T” A. Wilson
1986–1996
Frank Shrontz
1996–2003
Philip M. Condit
2003–2005
Harry C. Stonecipher
2005–2005
James A. Bell (acting)
2005–
W. James McNerney, Jr.

[edit] Chairman of the board
1916–1934
William E. Boeing
1934–1939
Clairmont L. Egtvedt (acting)
1939–1966
Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1968–1972
William M. Allen
1972–1987
Thornton “T” A. Wilson
1988–1996
Frank Shrontz
1997–2003
Philip M. Condit
2003–2005
Lew Platt
2005–
W. James McNerney, Jr.
[edit] President
1922–1925
Edgar N. Gott
1926–1933
Philip G. Johnson
1933–1939
Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1939–1944
Philip G. Johnson
1944–1945
Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1945–1968
William M. Allen
1968–1972
Thornton “T” A. Wilson
1972–1985
Malcolm T. Stamper
1985–1996
Frank Shrontz
1996–1997
Philip M. Condit
1997–2005
Harry Stonecipher
2005–2005
James A. Bell (acting for a few months)
2005–
W. James McNerney, Jr.

[edit] See also
Airbus
Arianespace
Boeing Aircraft Holding Company
Boeing hydrofoils
Bombardier
Embraer
List of civil aircraft
Lockheed Martin
Northrop Grumman
Philip G. Johnson
Vertol
Future of Flight Aviation Center & Boeing Tour Corporate public museum
Santa Susana Field Laboratory


Airbus


Airbus S.A.S. is the aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS N.V., a pan-European aerospace concern. Based at Toulouse, France with significant operations in other European nations, Airbus produces around half of the world's jet airliners, with most of the rest built by rival Boeing Commercial Airplanes, though the precise share varies on an annual basis.

Overview

Airbus was incorporated in 2001 under French law as a simplified joint stock company or S.A.S. (Société par Actions Simplifiée). Airbus was formerly known as Airbus Industrie. The name is pronounced /ˈɛəbʌs/ in British English, Image:ltspkr.png/ɛʁbys/ in French, and /ˈɛːɐbʊs/ in German.

Airbus was jointly held by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%), Europe's two largest defence contractors. BAE Systems announced its intention to sell its 20% share of Airbus in April 2006 and exercised its put option in June 2006 to force EADS to buy the stake. The put option appointed investment bank Rothschild to establish an independent valuation. Rothschild's valuation, reported in 2006, was £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion), well below the expecations of BAE and EADS. Unhappy with the valuation, BAE appointed independent auditors to investigate the value of its 20% share. [2] On 6 September 2006 the BAE board announced it would recommend to shareholders to sell its share for €2.75bn (£1.87bn or $3.53bn). [3]

Airbus employs around 57,000 people at sixteen sites in four European countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Final assembly production occurs at Toulouse (France) and Hamburg (Germany). Airbus also has three subsidiaries in the USA, Japan and China.

[edit] History

Airbus Industrie began as a consortium of European aviation firms to compete with American companies such as Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Lockheed. In the 1960s European aircraft manufacturers competed with each other as much as the American giants. In the mid-1960s tentative negotiations commenced regarding a European collaborative approach began.

In September 1967 the German, French and British governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to start development of the 300 seat Airbus A300. This was the second major joint aircraft programme in Europe, following the Concorde, for which no ongoing consortium was devised. An earlier announcement had been made in July 1967 but had been complicated by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC). The British government refused to back its proposed competitor, a development of the BAC 1-11 and instead supported the Airbus aircraft.

In the months following this agreement both the French and British governments expressed doubts about the aircraft. Another problem was the requirement for a new engine (to be developed by Rolls-Royce, the RB207). In December 1968 the French and British partner companies, Sud Aviation and Hawker Siddeley proposed a revised configuration, the 250 seat Airbus A250. Renamed the A300B the aircraft would not require new engines, reducing development costs.

In 1969 the British government shocked its partners by withdrawing from the project. Given the participation by Hawker Siddeley up to that point, France and Germany were reluctant to take over their wing design. Thus the British company was allowed to continue as a major subcontractor. In 1978 Britain rejoined the consortium when British Aerospace (the merged Hawker Siddeley and BAC) purchased again a 20% share of the company.

[edit] Formation of Airbus

Airbus A300, the first aircraft model launched by Airbus.
Airbus A300, the first aircraft model launched by Airbus.

Airbus Industrie was formally set up in 1970 following an agreement between Sud-Aviation (France) and Deutsche Airbus—itself a German aerospace consortium consisting of Bölkow, Dornier, Flugzeug-Union Süd, HFB, Messerschmitt, TG Siebelwerke, and VFW.[4] The grouping was joined by CASA of Spain in 1971. Each company would deliver its sections as fully equipped, ready to fly items. The name "Airbus" was taken from a non-proprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, for this term was acceptable to the French linguistically.

In 1972 the A300 made its maiden flight and the first production model, the A300B2 entered service in 1974. Initially the success of the consortium was poor but by 1979 there were 81 aircraft in service. It was the launch of the A320 in 1981 that guaranteed Airbus as a major player in the aircraft market - the aircraft had over 400 orders before it first flew, compared to 15 for the A300 in 1972.

It was a fairly loose alliance but that changed shortly after major defence mergers in 2000. DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (successor to Deutsche Airbus), Aérospatiale-Matra (successor to Sud-Aviation) and CASA merged to form EADS. In 2001 BAE Systems (formerly British Aerospace) and EADS formed the Airbus Integrated Company to coincide with the development of the new Airbus A380 which will seat 555 passengers and be the world's largest commercial passenger jet when it enters service in late 2007 according to the revised schedule announced in October of 2006[5].

[edit] BAE sale and A380 controversy

Airbus A380, the largest passenger jet in the world, is set to enter commercial service in 2007.
Airbus A380, the largest passenger jet in the world, is set to enter commercial service in 2007.

On 6 April 2006 BBC News reported that BAE Systems was selling again its share, then "conservatively valued" at €3.5 billion EUR ($4.17 bn USD). [6] The move was seen by many analysts as a move to make partnerships with U.S. firms more feasible, in both financial and political terms.[7] BAE originally sought to agree a price with EADS through an informal process. However due to the slow pace of negotiations and disagreements over price, BAE exercised its put option which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation.

In June 2006, Airbus became embroiled in a significant international controversy over its announcement of a further delay in the delivery of its A380. In the wake of the announcement, the value of associated stock plunged by up to a quarter in a matter of days, although it soon recovered somewhat. Allegations of insider trading on the part of Noël Forgeard, CEO of EADS, its majority corporate parent, promptly followed. The loss of associated value caused great concern on the part of BAE, The Independent describing a "furious row" between BAE and EADS, with BAE believing the announcement was designed to depress the value of its share. [8] A French shareholder group filed a class action lawsuit against EADS in a Dutch court for failing to inform investors of the financial implications of the A380 delays while airlines to which deliveries were promised are expected to demand compensation.[9] As a result, EADS chief Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert announced their resignations on 2 July 2006.[10] Forgeard's severance package is expected to include three years' of salary plus the 2005 bonus; a total of at least €6 million, possibly topping €7 million.[9]

On 2 July 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's stake at £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion); well below the expectation of BAE, analysts and even EADS. [11] On 5 July 2006 BAE appointed independent auditors to study why the value of its share of Airbus had fallen from the original estimates to the Rothschild valuation. They pushed back any potential sale until September at the earliest. [12] On 6 September 2006 BAE agreed to sell its stake in Airbus to EADS for £1.87 billion (€2.75 billion, $3.53 billion), pending BAE shareholder approval. [13] On 4 October shareholders voted in favour of the sale. [14]

On 9 October 2006 Christian Streiff, Humbert's successor, resigned due to differences with parent company EADS over the amount of independence he would be granted in implementing his reorganization plan for Airbus. He will be succeeded by EADS co-CEO Louis Gallois. This brings Airbus under more direct control of its parent company.

[edit] Civilian products

The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 with its innovative fly-by-wire control system. The A320 has been, and continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate biz-jet market (Airbus Corporate Jet). A stretched version is known as the A321 and is proving competitive with later models of the Boeing 737.

The longer range products, the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340, have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16 700 kilometres (9000 nautical miles), the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR (range of 17 446 km or 9420 nautical miles). The company is particularly proud of its use of fly-by-wire technologies and the common cockpit and systems in use throughout the aircraft family, which make it much easier to train crew.

Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft."[15]

In March 2006 Airbus announced the closing of the A300/A310 production line, ending over 30 years of production. The last delivery will take place in 2nd quarter 2007. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, and A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.[16]

Until its retirement in 2003, Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for the Concorde.

Product list and details (date information from Airbus)
Aircraft Description Seats Max Launch date 1st flight 1st delivery Production to cease
A300 2 engine, twin aisle 228-254 361 May 1969 28 October 1972 May 1974 July 2007
A310 2 engine, twin aisle, modified A300 187 279 July 1978 3 April 1982 Dec 1985 July 2007
A318 2 engine, single aisle, shortened 6.17 m from A320 107 117 Apr 1999 15 January 2002 Oct 2003
A319 2 engine, single aisle, shortened 3.77 m from A320 124 150 June 1993 25 August 1995 Apr 1996
A320 2 engine, single aisle 150 180 Mar 1984 22 February 1987 Mar 1988
A321 2 engine, single aisle, lengthened 6.94 m from A320 185 220 Nov 1989 11 March 1993 Jan 1994
A330 2 engine, twin aisle. 253-295 406-440 June 1987 2 November 1992 Dec 1993
A340 4 engine, twin aisle 239-380 420-440 June 1987 25 October 1991 Jan 1993
A350 2 engine, twin aisle 270-350
Dec 2006 2011 mid 2013
A380 4 engine, twin aisle, double deck 555 853 2002 27 Apr 2005 Oct 2007

[edit] Military products

In January 1999 Airbus established a separate company, Airbus Military S.A.S., to undertake development and production of a turboprop powered tactical transport aircraft (the Airbus Military A400M.) The A400M is being developed by several NATO members, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Turkey, and the UK, as an alternative to the C-130 Hercules. Expansion in the military aircraft market will reduce, but not negate, Airbus' exposure to the effects of cyclical downturns in civil aviation.

[edit] Airliner deliveries

[edit] Competition with Boeing

For a comparison of Airbus A350 and Boeing 787 orders, click here.
For a comparison of Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8 orders, click here.

Airbus is in tight competition with Boeing every year for aircraft orders. Though both manufacturers have a broad product range in various segments from single-aisle to wide-body, both manufacturers' offerings do not always compete head-to-head. Instead they respond with models a bit smaller or a bit bigger than the other in order to plug any holes in demand and achieve a better edge. The A380, for example, is designed to be a bit bigger than the 747. The A350XWB competes with the high end of the 787 and the low end of the 777. The A320 is bigger than the 737-700 but smaller than the 737-800. The A321 is bigger than the 737-900 but smaller than the previous 757-200. Airlines also see this as a benefit since they get a more complete product range from 100 seats to 500 seats than if both companies offered identical aircraft.

In recent years the Boeing 777 has outsold its Airbus counterparts, which include the A340 family as well as the A330-300. The smaller A330-200 competes with the 767, outselling its Boeing counterpart. The A380 is anticipated to further reduce sales of the Boeing 747, gaining Airbus a share of the market in very large aircraft. Boeing is building a stretched version of the 747, the 747-8, which will provide increased competition for the A380.

There are around 3,850 Airbus aircraft in service, with Airbus winning more than 50 per cent of aircraft orders in recent years. Airbus products are still outnumbered 6 to 1 by in-service Boeings (there are over 5,000 Boeing 737s alone in service). This however is indicative of historical success - Airbus made a late entry into the modern jet airliner market (1972 vs. 1958 for Boeing).

Airbus won a greater share of orders in 2003, 2004. It also delivered more aircraft in 2003, 2004, 2005 & 2006.

In 2005, Airbus made a claim to victory again with 1111 (1055 net)[17], compared to 1029 (net of 1002) for Boeing[17] However, Boeing won 55% of 2005 orders by value, due to that firm winning several important widebody sales at the expense of Airbus.

In 2006 Boeing won more orders by both measures.


[edit] Subsidies

Boeing has continually protested over "launch aid" and other forms of government aid to Airbus, while Airbus has argued that Boeing receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks.

In July 2004 Harry Stonecipher (then-Boeing CEO) accused Airbus of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU-US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments. Airbus is given reimbursable launch investment (RLI, called "launch aid" by the US) from European governments with the money being paid back with interest, plus indefinite royalties, but only if the aircraft is a commercial success[17]. Airbus contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. The agreement allows up to 33 per cent of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties. These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0.25%, which would be below market rates available to Airbus without government support[17]. Airbus claims that since the signature of the EU-U.S. Agreement in 1992, it has repaid European governments more than U.S.$6.7 billion and that this is 40% more than it has received.[17].

Airbus argues that the pork barrel military contracts awarded to Boeing (the second largest U.S. defence contractor) are in effect a form of subsidy (see the Boeing KC-767 military contracting controversy). The significant U.S. government support of technology development via NASA also provides significant support to Boeing, as does the large tax breaks offered to Boeing which some claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. In its recent products such as the 787, Boeing has also been offered substantial support from local and state governments[18]. However it has been argued that in U.S. government support of technology development, anyone can benefit from the results; even Airbus can benefit from them.

In January 2005 the European Union and United States trade representatives, Peter Mandelson and Robert Zoellick (since replaced by Rob Portman) respectively, agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions. These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement.

[edit] World Trade Organization litigation

On 31 May 2005 the United States filed a case against the European Union for providing allegedly illegal subsidies to Airbus. Twenty-four hours later the European Union filed a complaint against the United States protesting support for Boeing.[17]

Portman (from the USA) and Mandelson (from the EU) issued a joint statement stating: "We remain united in our determination that this dispute shall not affect our cooperation on wider bilateral and multilateral trade issues. We have worked together well so far, and intend to continue to do so."

Tensions increased by the support for the Airbus A380 have erupted into a potential trade war due to the upcoming launch of the Airbus A350. Airbus would ideally like the A350 programme to be launched with the help of state loans covering a third of the development costs although it has stated it will launch without these loans if required. The A350 will compete with Boeing's most successful project in recent years, the 787 Dreamliner.

EU trade officials are questioning the funding provided by NASA, the Department of Defense (in particular in the form of R&D contracts that benefited Boeing) as well as funding from US states (in particular the State of Washington, the State of Kansas and the State of Illinois) for the launch of Boeing aircraft, in particular the 787.

[edit] International manufacturing presence

The main Airbus factory in Toulouse lies just next to Toulouse Airport.
The main Airbus factory in Toulouse lies just next to Toulouse Airport.

The three final assembly lines of Airbus are in Toulouse (France) (two assembly lines) and Hamburg (Germany) (one assembly line). A fourth final assembly line, for the Airbus A400M, is under construction in Seville (Spain). It is estimated that this new assembly line will be operational by October 2006.

Airbus, however, has a number of other plants in different European locations, reflecting its foundation as a consortium. An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of "Beluga" specially enlarged jets, capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage of Airbus aircraft. This solution has also been investigated by Boeing, who retrofitted 3 of their 747 aircraft to transport the components of the 787. An exception to this scheme is the A380, whose fuselage and wings are too large for sections to be carried by the Beluga. Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux, and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by a specially enlarged road.

North America is an important region to Airbus in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers. 2,000 of the total of approximately 5,300 Airbus jetliners sold by Airbus around the world, representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107-seat A318 to the 565-passenger A380, are ordered by North American customers. According to Airbus, US contractors supporting an estimated 120,000 jobs earned estimated $5.5 billion (2003) worth of business. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value.

EADS Airbus will be opening an assembly plant in Tianjin, China for its A320 series airliners, to be operational in 2009. AVIC I and AVIC II will be EADS' local partners for the site, to which subassemblies will be sent from plants around the world.[19]

[edit] Workforce by countries

Country Airbus direct employees
France 19,358
Germany 18,423
United Kingdom 8,688
Spain 2,726
United States 405+
People's Republic of China 100+
Total 49,700+

(Data as of December 31, 2003)

[edit] Workforce by sites

Airbus site ¹ Country Workforce
Toulouse
(Saint-Martin-du-Touch, Colomiers, Blagnac)
France

14,133

Hamburg
(Finkenwerder, Stade, Buxtehude)
Germany

11,185

Bristol (Filton), England UK 4,379
Broughton, Flintshire, Wales UK 4,309
Bremen Germany 3,051
Madrid (Getafe, Illescas) Spain 2,243
Saint-Nazaire France 2,227
Nordenham Germany 2,106
Nantes France 1,869
Varel Germany 1,172
Albert (Méaulte) France 1,129
Laupheim Germany 909
Cadiz (Puerto Real) Spain 483
Washington, D.C. (Herndon, Ashburn) USA 165+
Wichita USA 200+
Beijing PRC 100+
Tianjin[19] PRC TBD
Miami (Miami Springs) USA 100
Total
49,700+

(Data as of December 31, 2003)

¹ Name of the urban/metropolitan area appears first, then in parenthesis are the exact locations of the plants

[edit] Airbus Aircraft Numbering System

The Airbus numbering system starts with the main aircraft model number (Ammm) followed by a dash and three digits (-sev) following the pattern Ammm-sev. The model number takes the form of the letter "A" followed by three digits (m), e.g. A320. The series number is a single digit (s). Two more digits after the series number represent the engine (e) and a version number (v). To use an A320-200 with IAE V2500-A1 engines as an example, the code is A320-2ev for the model and series number. Adding the engine manufacturer (for codes, see below), this makes the code now A320-23v. The version is 1, taking the code to A320-231.

An additional letter is sometimes used. These include, 'C' for a combi version (passenger/freighter), 'F' for a freighter model, 'R' for the long range model, and 'X' for the enhanced model.

[edit] Engine codes

Code Manufacturing Company
0 General Electric (GE)
1 CFM International (GE/SNECMA)
2 Pratt & Whitney (P&W)
3 International Aero Engines (R-R, P&W, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi, and Ishikawajima-Harima)
4 Rolls-Royce (R-R)
6 Engine Alliance (GE and P&W)

Bombardier Aerospace


Bombardier Aerospace is a division of the Bombardier group, with the third largest workforce (behind Boeing and Airbus) and the fourth largest in yearly delivery of commercial airplanes (behind Boeing, Airbus and Embraer).

The aerospace division was launched with the acquisition of Canadair, at the time owned by the Government of Canada and a company that had recorded the then largest loss in history of any Canadian corporation. Politically, the Federal Government could not allow the Montreal, Quebec based company to close, and any hints that it might do so were met with media stories of the Government's Avro Arrow disaster. Quebec separatists have long complained that Federal Government does nothing for Quebec. The loss of many desirable highly paid jobs at Canadair would have confirmed their complaint.

Bombardier CRJ in Air Canada Jazz colours
Bombardier CRJ in Air Canada Jazz colours

After acquiring Canadair in 1986 and restoring it to profitability, Bombardier acquired the money-losing Boeing subsidiary, de Havilland Aircraft of Canada based in Toronto, Ontario. A few years later in 1989, Bombardier, by then experts at buying companies cheaply and turning them around, acquired the near-bankrupt Short Brothers aircraft manufacturing company in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Shortly thereafter, in 1990 Bombardier acquired the bankrupt Learjet Company of Wichita, Kansas, builder of the world-famous Learjet business aircraft.

Aircraft

Bombardier builds business jets, short-range airliners and fire-fighting amphibious aircraft and also provides defence-related services. Some of their aircraft designs originated in the design departments of Canadair or de Havilland Aircraft of Canada. The company has been adept at developing quiet turboprop airliners capable of using urban airports with relatively short runways and steep glide slopes.


Current models include the Learjet family of aircraft, the Challenger 300, Challenger 605, Global 5000, Global Express, Dash 8 (now known as the Q series) and the CRJ series. The Learjets are light to mid-size business jets. The Challenger and Global Families of aircraft are larger jet aircraft with extended range. The Q series (Dash-8) are high-wing turboprop aircraft, while the CRJ is a low-wing, commercial jet with rear mounted engines. The CRJ is a derivative of the Canadair CL-600 Challenger business jet.

Bombardier BD-700 Global 5000 takes off
Bombardier BD-700 Global 5000 takes off

Both commercial aircraft models (The Dash-8 and CRJ) have similar 2x2 seating, overhead bin storage, lavatories, and galleys. The latest Dash-8 models have an advanced noise and vibration suppression (NVS) system that reduces noise considerably. This system has led to the adoption of the name "Q-Series." In this designation, the original aircraft name is shortened, using only the sub-designation of the aircraft model. For example, the de Haviland DHC-8-400 becomes the "Q400", with the "Q" standing for "Quiet."

These aircraft are selling well and are enabling some less popular routes to be profitably served by scheduled air services with relatively low environmental impact at the airports. They have recently mounted and endured some unusual legal battles with a key competitor Embraer of Brazil focused upon allegations of unfair state assistance in export markets.

The amphibious fire-fighting aircraft is the CL-415, with a derivative amphibious utility aircraft.

Each model is available in different versions:

[edit] Business Jets

Product list and details (date information from Bombardier)
Aircraft Description Seats Launch date 1st flight 1st delivery Scheduled to cease production
Bombardier Learjet 40 XR private jet 2-7



Bombardier Learjet 45 XR private jet 2-9



Bombardier Learjet 60 XR private jet 8-10 June 1991

Bombardier Challenger 300 private jet 8-16
1999 2004
Bombardier Challenger 600 private jet 2-19 1976 1975
1986
Bombardier Challenger 605 private jet 5-12 2005 2006

Bombardier Challenger 850 private jet 5-19


Bombardier Global 5000 private jet 8-18 1993 1996
Bombardier Global Express XRS private jet 8-19 2003 2005

[edit] Canadair Regional Jets

Product list and details (date information from Bombardier)
Aircraft Description Seats Launch date 1st flight 1st delivery Scheduled to cease production
CRJ-100 regional jet up to 50

1992
CRJ-200 regional jet up to 50



CRJ-700 regional jet 64-75
1999
CRJ-900 regional jet 86-90

2003
CRJ-1000 regional jet up to 100 February 19, 2007

[edit] C-Series

Bombardier planned to build an 85-120 seat aircraft. This was the BRJ-X project. Instead of continuing development, the CRJ-900 was built instead. However the shelved project was revived, and reformulated into the C-Series.

In July 2004, Bombardier announced the development of a family of airliners named the C-Series and capable of carrying 110 or 135 passengers. For the first time, Bombardier would have been competing directly with the smallest offerings from the much larger Boeing and Airbus companies. Bombardier expected the aircraft to be available by 2010. In March 2005, Bombardier's board decided to promote the plane to airlines to gather advance orders. However the failure to secure any significant orders lead to the postponing of the programme's launch in January 2006. Bombardier has stated they would keep a small team of roughly 50 employees working on the C-Series marketing plan and including other risk sharing partners in the programme. [1] [2]

In May 2005, secured agreements with the Federal Government of Canada, the Provincial Government of Quebec and the Government of the United Kingdom for supports and loans for the C-Series project. Final assembly of the aircraft was to be at Mirabel Airport, outside Montreal, Quebec. Substantial portions of the aircraft were to be constructed at Bombardier facilities in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

[edit] Q Series Turboprops

The Q series is the latest iteration of the De Havilland Canada Dash 8. The Q Series is manufactured in Toronto; the Q stands for "quiet".

Product list and details (date information from Bombardier)
Aircraft Description Seats Launch date 1st flight 1st delivery Scheduled to cease production
De Havilland Canada Dash 8/Bombardier Aerospace Q100 turbo prop 33-37

1984
De Havilland Canada Dash 8/Bombardier Aerospace Q200 Enhanced engines; "Hot/High" version of the -100 turbo prop 33-37
1986 1989
De Havilland Canada Dash 8/Bombardier Aerospace Q300 Stretched -100 series turbo prop 48-50
1989
De Havilland Canada Dash 8/Bombardier Aerospace Q400 Features 6-blade, low speed props for low noise turbo prop 68-78
1998 2000

de Havilland Canada

The de Havilland Canada company was an innovative aircraft manufacturer with facilities based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The aircraft company was created in 1928 by British de Havilland Aircraft to build Moth aircraft for the training of Canadian airmen, and subsequently after the Second World War, designed and produced indigenous designs. After a number of company changes, Bombardier sold the rights to the out-of-production aircraft (DHC-1 through DHC-7) to Viking Air Ltd. of Sidney, British Columbia in May 2005.

Pre-World War II

Flown for the first time on 26 October 1931, the DH.82 Tiger Moth was derived from the DH.60 Moth. The DH 82 was powered by a 120 hp Gipsy II engine, but the 1939 DH.82a received the 145 hp Gipsy Major. More than 1,000 Tiger Moths were delivered before the Second World War, and subsequently 4,005 were built in the UK and shipped all over the world. 1,747 were built in Canada (the majority being the DH.82c model with enclosed cockpits, brakes, tail wheels, etc.). The follow-up DH.83 Fox Moth was designed in England in 1932 as a light, economic transport and was built using as many Tiger Moth components as possible.

[edit] Second World War

The de Havilland Tiger Moth was a basic trainer of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) during the Second World War, whereby air crews from all over the British Commonwealth trained in Canada. DHC was a Canadian unit of British de Havilland and during World War II was made into a crown corporation of the Canadian government.

Production of the de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito nicknamed the "Mossie," was the company's greatest contribution to the war effort. The de Havilland Mosquito was one of the most remarkable combat aircraft of the Second World War; the most striking feature of the aircraft was its construction. To reduce wartime metal use, the airframe was constructed almost entirely out of plywood. The design intent of the Mosquito was speed instead of defensive armament, and from the moment it first flew until 1944, it was the fastest plane in the war, at 425 mph at 30,000 feet. Its manoeuverability, even on just one engine, was spectacular. The original design was intended as a light bomber, but soon proved itself in high-level photography and every phase of intruder operations.

[edit] Post-Second World War

After the war, de Havilland Canada began to build its own designs uniquely suited to the harsh Canadian operating environment. The company also continued production of several British de Havilland aircraft and later produced a license-built version of the American-designed Grumman S2F Tracker. The Avro Canada aircraft production facility was transferred to de Havilland Canada by the companies' parent Hawker Siddeley in 1962.

[edit] DHC-1 Chipmunk

The first true postwar aviation project was the de Havilland DHC-1 Chipmunk, designed as a primary trainer, a replacement for the venerable de Havilland Tiger Moth. The Chipmunk was an all-metal, low wing, tandem two-place, single-engine airplane with a conventional tail wheel landing gear. It had fabric-covered control surfaces and a clear plastic canopy covering the pilot and passenger/student positions. The production versions of the airplane were powered by a 145 hp in-line de Havilland Gipsy Major "8" engine.

The Chipmunk prototype first flew on 22 May 1946 in Toronto and had a total production run of 158 Chipmunks for RCAF use while de Havilland (UK) produced 740 airplanes for training at various RAF and University Air Squadrons during the late 1940s and into the 1950s.

[edit] DHC-2 Beaver

Returning to designing purpose-built aircraft for Canada's north, de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver was developed in 1947. After a survey of Canada's bush pilots, including the great Punch Dickins, the need for a rugged, highly versatile aerial truck which could take off and land almost anywhere, carry a large half-ton load and be very reliable, formed the basis of a new specification. The first of the STOL family that de Havilland would produce, the Beaver would literally carve a niche into the bush plane market.

In the civilian sector, the Beaver soon excelled on wheels, skis and floats, so it was almost inevitable, that, in 1951, the Beaver would be selected by the US Air Force and Army as a new liaison aircraft. In the nine years that followed, 968 L-20As were delivered to the armed forces, most going to the Army. They served in both the Korean and Vietnam wars, hauling freight and personnel around the battlefields, mapping enemy troop positions, leading search/rescue missions, and relaying radio traffic, among other missions. In 1962, the L-20 was re-designated the U-6A, and many remaining examples remained in service well into the 1970s. Beavers were also purchased and used by the military services of numerous other nations, including Britain, Chile and Columbia.

With almost 1700 built in a production run lasting two decades, civilian-owned Beavers continue plying their trade in over 50 countries all around the world. A turbine-conversion, the Turbo-Beaver first flew in December 1963. This version featured a Pratt & Whitney PT6A6 turboprop, which offered lower empty and higher takeoff weights, and even better STOL performance. The Turbo Beaver's cabin was also longer, allowing maximum accommodation for 11, including the pilot. Externally, the Turbo Beaver had a much longer and reprofiled nose, and squared off vertical tail. DHC also offered conversion kits enabling piston powered Beavers to be upgraded to Turbo standard. Other conversions have been performed by a number of companies including Kenmore Aviation and Viking Air.

[edit] DHC-3 Otter

Another in de Havilland Canada's successful line of rugged and useful STOL utility transports, the Otter was conceived to be capable of performing the same roles as the earlier and highly successful Beaver, but was bigger, the vertible "one-ton truck."

Using the same overall configuration of the earlier and highly successful DHC2 Beaver, the Otter is much larger overall. The Otter began life as the King Beaver, but compared to the Beaver is longer, has greater span wings and is much heavier. Seating in the main cabin is for 10 or 11, whereas the Beaver could seat six. Power is supplied by a 450 kW (600 hp) Pratt & Whitney R1340 Wasp radial. Like the Beaver, the Otter can be fitted with skis and floats. The amphibious floatplane Otter features a unique four unit retractable undercarriage, with the wheels retracting into the floats.

Design work at de Havilland Canada began on the DHC3 Otter in January 1951, the company's design efforts culminating in the type's first flight on 12 December 1951. Canadian certification was awarded in November 1952.

After de Havilland Canada demonstrated the Otter to the US Army, subsequently that service went on to become the largest DHC3 operator (as the U1). Other military users included Australia, Canada and India.

Small numbers of Otters were converted to turbine power by Cox Air Services of Alberta, Canada. Changes included a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop, a lower empty weight of 1692 kg (3703 lb) and a higher maximum speed of 267 km/h (144 kt). It was called the Cox Turbo Single Otter. A number of other after market PT6 conversions have also been offered.

The Otter found a significant niche as a bush aircraft and today it remains highly sought after.

[edit] DHC-4 Caribou

de Havilland Canada's fourth design was a big step up in size compared with its earlier products, and was the first powered by two engines, but the Caribou was similar in that it is a rugged STOL utility. The Caribou was primarily a military tactical transport that in commercial service found itself a small niche in cargo hauling.

de Havilland Canada designed the DHC-4 in response to a US Army requirement for a tactical airlifter to supply the battlefront with troops and supplies and evacuate casualties on the return journey. With assistance from Canada's Department of Defence Production, DHC built a prototype demonstrator that flew for the first time on 30 July 1958.

Impressed with the DHC4's STOL capabilities and potential, the US Army ordered five for evaluation as YAC-1s and went on to become the largest Caribou operator, taking delivery of 159. The AC-1 designation was changed in 1962 to CV-2, and then C-7 when the US Army's CV-2s were transferred to the US Air Force in 1967. US and Australian Caribou saw extensive service during the Vietnam conflict. In addition some US Caribou were captured by North Vietnamese forces and remained in service with that country through to the late 1970s. Other notable military operators included Canada, Malaysia, India and Spain.

The majority of Caribou production was for military operators, but the type's ruggedness and excellent STOL capabilities also appealed to a select group of commercial users. US certification was awarded on 23 December 1960. AnsettMAL, which operated a single example in the New Guinea highlands, and AMOCO Ecuador were early customers, as was Air America (a CIA front in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era for covert operations). Other Caribou entered commercial service after being retired from their military users.

Today only a handful are in civil use.

[edit] DHC-5 Buffalo

Known originally as the Caribou II, the de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo tactical transport was basically an enlarged DHC-4 with turboprop engines employing a high-set wing, upswept aft fuselage with loading ramp and T-tail. The DHC-5 had been developed to meet the requirements of the US Army for a transport that would be able to carry loads such as the Pershing missile, a 105-mm howitzer or 3/4-ton truck. Development costs were shared by the US Army, Canadian government and de Havilland Canada; the first of these transports made its maiden flight on 9 April 1964.

Hopes for large orders were dashed when the US Army abandoned fixed-wing aircraft. 122 were built in two production runs, including a handful of Buffalo aircraft for the US Army and four C-8 transports for the USAF. When no further orders resulted from the US Army evaluation of the DHC-5 (designated originally YAC-2 by the US Army, and later C-8A), the Canadian Armed Forces acquired 15 of the DHC-5A (designated CC-115): six were converted subsequently for deployment in a maritime patrol role.

Following delivery of 24 to the Brazilian Air Force and 16 to the Peruvian Air Force, the production line was closed down. In 1974, the company realised there was a continuing demand for the Buffalo and production of an improved Buffalo (DHC-5D) was initiated. This version had more powerful engines which permitted operation at higher gross weights, and offered improved all-round performance. Production of the Buffalo ended in 1982, but the last of 122 aircraft built was not delivered until April 1985.

[edit] DHC-6 Twin Otter

Still Canada's most successful commercial aircraft program with more than 800 built, the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter remains popular for its rugged construction and useful STOL performance.

Development of the Twin Otter dates back to January 1964, when de Havilland Canada started design work on a new STOL twin turboprop commuter airliner (seating between 13 and 18) and utility transport to replace the earlier single-engined DHC-3 Otter. The new aircraft was designated the DHC-6 and prototype construction began in November that year, resulting in the type's first flight on 20 May 1965. After receiving certification in mid-1966, the first Twin Otter entered service with long-time de Havilland Canada supporter, the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests.

The first production aircraft were Series 100s. Design features included double slotted trailing edge flaps and ailerons that can act in unison to boost STOL performance. Compared with the later Series 200s and 300s, the 100s are distinguishable by their shorter, blunter noses.

The main addition to the Series 200, which was introduced in April 1968, was the extended nose, which, together with a reconfigured storage compartment in the rear cabin, greatly increased baggage stowage area.

The Series 300 was introduced from the 231st production aircraft in 1969. It too featured the lengthened nose, but also introduced more powerful engines, thus allowing a 450kg (1000lb) increase in takeoff weight and a 20 seat interior. Production ceased in late 1988. In addition, six 300S enhanced STOL performance DHC-6-300s were built in the mid 1970s.

All models have been fitted with skis and floats.

[edit] de Havilland Canada Dash 7

The pinnacle of the de Havilland Canada STOL family was the four-engine de Havilland Canada Dash 7 which remains unrivalled because of its impressive STOL performance and low noise capabilities.

The Dash 7 was designed as a STOL (short takeoff and landing) 50-seat regional airliner capable of operating from strips as short as 915 m (3000 ft) in length. The main design features to achieve such a capability were an advanced wing and four Pratt & Whitney PT6A turboprops. Double slotted trailing edge flaps run the entire span of the high mounted wing, dramatically increasing the lifting surface available for takeoff. Extra lift is also generated by the airflow over the wing from the relatively slow turning propellers. The wings also feature two pairs of spoilers each - the inboard pair also operate as lift dumpers, the outboard pair can act differentially in conjunction with the ailerons to boost roll control.

Financial backing from the Canadian Government allowed the launch of the DHC7 program in the early 1970s, resulting in the maiden flight of the first of two development aircraft on March 27, 1975. The first production Dash 7 flew on 3 March 1977, the type was certificated on May 2, 1977 and it entered service with Rocky Mountain Airways on 3 February 1978.

The standard passenger carrying Dash 7 is the Series 100, while the type was also offered in pure freighter form as the Series 101. The only major development of the Dash 7 was the Series 150, which featured a higher max. takeoff weight and greater fuel capacity, boosting range. The Series 151 was the equivalent freighter. Production of the Dash 7 ended in 1988, following Boeing's takeover of de Havilland Canada.

[edit] de Havilland Canada Dash 8

De Havilland Canada began development of the Dash 8 in the late 1970s in response to what it saw as a considerable market demand for a new generation 30 to 40 seat commuter airliner. The first flight of the first of two preproduction aircraft was on 20 June 1983, while Canadian certification was awarded on September 28, 1984. The first customer delivery was to norOntair of Canada on 23 October 1984.

Like the Dash 7, the Dash 8 features a high mounted wing and T-tail, an advanced flight control system and large full length trailing edge flaps. Power is supplied by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW120 series (originally designated PT7A) turboprops.

[edit] Aircraft built under license

The de Havilland Canada company produced a large number of aircraft under license, mostly versions of designs from its original parent company, British de Havilland Aircraft.

[edit] de Havilland Fox Moth

Fox Moths were produced in Canada after the Second World War mainly to keep the plant in production, but also to satisfy the increasing need for new bush aircraft. All the Canadian modifications made to the Tiger Moth were also applied to the Fox Moth. De Havilland designed a special stretcher for the Fox Moth, in order that it could operate as an air ambulance. Of the 53 produced, 39 remained in Canada, most of which were operated in float/ski configuration and gave years of satisfactory service.

The Fox Moth, though efficient, was a bit of an anachronism. For example, a modern, moulded- plexiglas sliding cockpit-hood was attached to what was essentially a 1932 aircraft. Communication between the passenger cabin in the fuselage and the cockpit to the rear was through a hole in the instrument panel.

[edit] de Havilland Mosquito

Before the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada built 1,134 Mosquitos, of which 444 were on strength with the RCAF in models Bomber Mk VII through Trainer Mk 29 from 1 June 1943 to 28 September 1951.

[edit] de Havilland Canada (Grumman) CS2F Tracker

In 1954, the Royal Canadian Navy decided to replace its fleet of obsolescent TBM Avenger anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft with domestically-produced license-built versions of the new Grumman S2F Tracker. The contract for the CS2F was worth $100 million Canadian, at the time, the largest post-Second World War Canadian defense contract. Subassemblies of the aircraft would be produced by various Canadian companies and shipped to de Havilland Canada facilities, where de Havilland would build the forward fuselage and crew compartment, assemble the aircraft, oversee installation of the ASW electronics and prepare the aircraft for delivery.

The first Canadian-built Tracker flew on 31 May 1956. A total of 99 Trackers were produced for RCN service starting in the same year.[1] A few of these aircraft would serve with the Canadian military until the 1990s.

[edit] The End of de Havilland Canada

In the 1980s, the Canadian government privatized DHC and sold the aircraft company to then Seattle-based Boeing. DHC has since been acquired by Montreal-based Bombardier Aerospace. The de Havilland (Canada) company was eventually incorporated into the Bombardier group of companies and the Dash Eight remains in production with a particular emphasis being placed on its quiet operation in comparison to other aircraft of a similar size.

On 24 February 2006, Viking Air of Victoria purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the original De Havilland designs[2] including:

  • DHC-1 Chipmunk
  • DHC-2 Beaver
  • DHC-3 Otter
  • DHC-4 Caribou
  • DHC-5 Buffalo
  • DHC-6 Twin Otter
  • DHC-7 Dash 7

The ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to manufacture new aircraft.

[edit] Aircraft

Product list and details (date information from de Havilland Canada)
Aircraft Description Seats Launch date 1st flight 1st delivery Scheduled to cease production
de Havilland Moth - for RAF and RCAF trainer Two
1928

de Havilland Tiger Moth - for RAF and RCAF Trainer Two
1931
de Havilland Fox Moth - for RAF and RCAF Transport Crew of one; seats five
1932 (production restarted in 1946)
de Havilland Mosquito - for RAF and RCAF Fighter, fighter/bomber Two
1940
1945
DHC-1 Chipmunk trainer Two
1946
1956
DHC-2 Beaver Bush plane Crew of/ seats seven
1947
1967
DHC-3 Otter Bush plane Crew of one; seats 10-11
1951
1965?
DHC-4 Caribou Specialized transport Crew of three
1951 1950s late 1960s
DHC-5 Buffalo Cargo turbo prop Crew of three
1964 1965 1974
DHC-6 Twin Otter Utility aircraft Crew of two; seats 20
1965
DHC-7 Dash 7 Turbo prop airliner Crew of two; seats 35-54
1972 1975 1988

DHC-8 Dash 8 Turbo prop airliner Crew of two/three; seats 37-78
1983 1984
CS2F Tracker - For RCN under license from Grumman Anti-submarine warfare aircraft Crew of four
1956 1956


BAE Systems


BAE Systems Regional Aircraft

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An Avro RJ85. BAE Systems Regional Aircraft still leases a large number of these jets.
An Avro RJ85. BAE Systems Regional Aircraft still leases a large number of these jets.

BAE Systems Regional Aircraft produced the last fully UK-built airliner in November 2001, the Avro RJX (formerly the BAE 146). While this unit no longer produces aircraft it continues to lease aircraft and provide support, spares and training for its products, the

The decision to end production of the Avro RJ series was taken following the sharp downturn in aircraft sales following September 11, 2001 attacks. British Aerospace (BAE's predecessor) left the corporate jet market in 1993 with the sale of British Aerospace Corporate Jets Ltd. to Raytheon, but had maintained the regional jet division.

BAE's Regional Aircraft division is consistently unprofitable. Flight International estimates losses of "around £50 million ($86 million) a year". [1] These losses were offset by the then strong performance of Airbus (in which BAE had a 20% share) and recent large defence sales, including the Typhoon sale to Saudi Arabia. The poor performance in 2005 has been linked to the large number of bankruptcies in the U.S. airline industry.

EADS


The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. The company develops and markets civil and military aircraft, as well as missiles, space rockets, and related systems.

History and activities

EADS was formed by its member companies in July 2000, to become the world's second largest aerospace company (after Boeing). EADS is also the second-largest European arms manufacturer (after BAE Systems.)

In early 2001 EADS and its partner in Airbus, BAE Systems, agreed to establish it as a fully integrated company. Airbus formally achieved this on 12 July 2001. This new arrangement saw the shareholdings established at 80% (EADS) and 20% (BAE). In April 2001 EADS agreed to merge its missile businesses with those of BAE Systems and Alenia Marconi Systems (BAE/Finmeccanica) to form MBDA. EADS took a 37.5% share of the new company which was formally established in December 2001.

On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25% share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS renamed the company EADS Astrium. In November 2003, EADS announced that it was considering working with Japanese companies, and the Japanese METI, to develop a hypersonic airliner intended to be a larger, faster, and quieter, replacement for the Concorde, which was retired in October the same year.

[edit] Management

EADS operates with two co-CEOs, one French, Louis Gallois, and one German, Thomas Enders. Similarly the leadership of the board of directors is shared between two co-chairmen: Arnaud Lagardère and Manfred Bischoff. This system was established with the creation of EADS in 2000. Members of the board of directors of EADS are: Manfred Bischoff, François David, Juan Manuel Eguiagaray, Thomas Enders, Noël Forgeard, Louis Gallois, Rüdiger Grube, Jean-Paul Gut, Arnaud Lagardère, Hans Peter Ring, Michael Rogowski.

In late 2004 Noël Forgeard (then Airbus CEO) was nominated by Lagardère as the next French CEO of EADS. Forgeard had suggested that this system should be abolished in favour of a single CEO in a move that DaimlerChrysler saw as an attempt to engineer a French dominated management team. Following protracted arguments, which caused embarrassment to EADS at the Paris Air Show, the appointment was confirmed by the EADS Board of Directors on June 25, 2005. At the same meeting the Board, in consultation with partner BAE Systems, named Gustav Humbert as President and CEO of Airbus.

On June 2, 2006 co-CEO Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months. Forgeard was also under pressure due to the fact that he had sold EADS stock weeks before the A380 announcement which caused a 26% slump in the share price.

[edit] EADS divisions

[edit] Airbus Division

Main article: Airbus

Airbus S.A.S. was 80% owned by EADS, with BAE Systems owning the remaining 20%. In September 2006, both companies announced a transaction of all stock from BAE Systems to EADS, meaning that Airbus will be fully owned by EADS. Airbus headquarters are located in Toulouse, France.

On 2006-06-07 BAE Systems exercised its put option to force EADS to buy is stake which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation. Following the announcement in June 2006 that Airbus would delay deliveries of the A380 by up to seven months reports appeared questioning the impact on the value of BAE's share of Airbus. The Independent described a "furious row" between BAE and EADS, with BAE believing the announcement was designed to depress the value of its share.[1]

On 2 July 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's stake at £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion); well below the expectation of BAE, analysts and even EADS.[2] On 6 September 2006, BAE agreed to sell its stake in Airbus to EADS for £1.87 billion (€2.75 billion, $3.53 billion), pending BAE shareholder approval. [3] The deal closed on October 13, 2006.


Aérospatiale


Aérospatiale was a French aerospace manufacturer that primarily built both civilian and military aircraft and rockets.

The company was created in 1970 from the state-owned companies Sud Aviation, Nord Aviation and Société d'études et de réalisation d'engins balistiques (SÉREB). Starting in 1971 it was directed by Émile Dewoitine and Bernard Dufour.

In 1992, DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG (DASA) and Aérospatiale combined their helicopter divisions to form the Eurocopter Group.

In 1999, Aérospatiale merged with Matra Haute Technologie to form Aérospatiale-Matra. In 2001, Aérospatiale-Matra's missile group was merged with Matra BAe Dynamics and the missile division of Alenia Marconi Systems to form MBDA.

On July 10, 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany to form The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS).

[edit] Products

The company worked with the British company Westland on three designs, the Puma, Gazelle and Lynx.

The Aérospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. Forty were built.
The Aérospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. Forty were built.




1 Comments:

Blogger bleedingblade said...

OMG! My cousin made a blog! Let's see whether I can link it to mine and torture him so. :D

1:38 AM  

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